کاتا / فۆڕم / شێوه Kata
The kata are formal exercises which combine basic karate techniques -- blocking, punching, striking, and kicking -- into a series of predetermined movements. Kata combines offensive and defensive techniques, proper body movement, and changes in direction. The kata teach the karateka to dispose of numerous attackers from at least four directions. Although the kata do not involve visible opponents, the karateka, through serious study of the kata, learns the art of self-defense and the ability to calmly and efficiently deal with dangerous situations. For these reasons, the kata have been the core of karate training since ancient times.
There are five characteristics of kata:
1) For each kata, there are a fixed number of movements. (The basic Heian kata have 20 to 27 movements; advanced kata can have over 60.)
2) One must perform the movements in the correct order.
One must begin and end the kata at the same point on the floor. Each kata has its own "shape" -- depending on the kata, the karateka may move along a straight line or a "T"- or "I"-shaped formation.
3) There are kata that all karateka must learn, and kata that are optional. The former consist of the five Heian kata and three Tekki kata. The optional kata are Bassai-dai (although most brown belts practice this for their black belt exam) and Bassai-sho, Kanku-dai and Kanku-sho, Empi, Hangetsu, Jitte, Gankaku, Jion. Other kata include Meikyo, Chinte, Nijushiho, Gojushiho-dai and Gojushiho-sho, Hyakuhachiho, Sanchin, Tensho, Unsu, Sochin, Seienchin, Ji'in, and Wankan.
4) There are three aspects to performing a dynamic kata: (1) correct use of power; (2) correct speed of movement, be it fast or slow; (3) expansion and contraction of the body. The kata's beauty, power, and rhythm depend on these aspects.
5) One bows at the beginning and end of the kata.
Bowing is part of the kata, too.
1- Heian Shodan
2- Heian Nidan
3- Heian Sandan
4- Heian Yondan
5- Heian Godan
6- Tekki Shodan
7- Bassai Dai
8- Kanku Dai
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